citations for posters

Portland's Compost System
Portland's Sewage System
Aerobic Decomposition
Awesome Critters That Compost
Nitrogen Cycle
Oh, the Places You'll Go

Citations for Portland's Compost System
Direct interviews with Cedar Grove Employee at Seattle Green Conference June 5, 2010.
And their website: http://www.cedar-grove.com


Portland's Sewage System

every time it rains is 150 days a year!
"Climate Summary Portland." National Weather Service. 8/18/10 < http://www.wrh.noaa.gov/pqr/climate/pdx_clisummary.php

1982 commercial waste is treated-
"Industrial Pretreatment Program". Bureau of Environmental Services. 8/18/20 .

614,000 users-
"Columbia Boulevard Wastewater Treatment Plant: Design Data- 2008." Bureau of Environmental Services.

4 tons/day of debris
"Columbia Boulevard Wastewater Treatment Plant". Bureau of Environmental Services. 2008. pg 18.

settling tank
"Columbia Boulevard Wastewater Treatment Plant". Bureau of Environmental Services. 2008. pg 19.

settling tank since 1952
"ColumbiaBoulevard Treatment Plant." Bureau of Environmental Services. 2008. 8/18/20

sludge moves through settling tank after 1 1/2 hrs
"Treatment Process". Bureau of Environmental Services. 2008. 8/18/20

when it rains sewage is bleached, de-bleached and then dumped, sometimes it's just dumped in the river
"Combined Sewer Overflows". Bureau of Environmental Services. 8/18/20

When the Big Pipe is finished-
"Combined Sewer Overflows". Bureau of Environmental Services. 8/18/20
same as above under paragraph "Big Pipe Projects".

aerator costs $1 million per year
"Treatment Process". Bureau of Environmental Services. 2008. 8/18/20

aeration, since 1974
"Treatment Process". Bureau of Environmental Services. 2008. 8/18/20

Clarifier since 1974
"Treatment Process". Bureau of Environmental Services. 2008. 8/18/20

sludge on the bottom of clarifier is circulated back to aerator
"Columbia Boulevard Wastewater Treatment Plant". Bureau of Environmental Services. pg 18.

anaerobic digester since 1974
"Treatment Process". Bureau of Environmental Services. 2008. 8/18/20

Bacteria eat sludge for 2-4 weeks
and
sludge is 97% water after treatment
"Columbia Boulevard Wastewater Treatment Plant". Bureau of Environmental Services. pg 19

Lagoon has a 1 year residency since 1970
"Treatment Process". Bureau of Environmental Services. 2008. 8/18/20

Polymer added to remove more water from sludge-
Ron Lilienthal, Operations Specialist, Columbia Blvd Wastewater Treatment Plant, Tour July 16, 2010.

Belt Presses
"Treatment Process". Bureau of Environmental Services. 2008. 8/18/20

60 dry tons of Class B biosolids produced daily that are 80% water
"Columbia Boulevard Wastewater Treatment Plant: Design Data- 2008." Bureau of Environmental Services. 2008. (this is a insert in the brochure)

Lagoon makes further reduces water content to 80%.
Ron Lilienthal, Operations Specialist, Columbia Blvd Wasteweater Treatment Plant, Tour July 16, 2010.

Class B biosolids are applied to dryland pasture, but unused for first 30 days.
National Research Council. Biosolids Applied to the Land: Advancing Standards and Practices. Washington: National Academies. 2002.
"animals shall not be grazed on land until 30 days after application of biosolids to the land. "
EPA (2000). "Guide to Field Storage of Biosolids and Other Organic By-Produces Used in Agriculture and for Soil Resource Management." EPA/832-B-00-007 .


It all starts with Oxygen . . . Aerobic Decomposition

Asparagine was the first amino acid discovered in 1806.
Vauquelin LN, Robiquet PJ (1806). "The discovery of a new plant principle in Asparagus sativus". Annales de Chimie 57: 88–93.

organic compound + O2----> CO2 + H2O + heat
Berg, Linda. Introductory Botany: Plants, People, and the Environment. Belmont: Thompson. 2008. page 82
Integral Urban House page 120.

Peptidoglycen-
"Peptidoglycen Biosynthesis." Walker Lab, Harvard University Chemistry Department.

Phosopholipids
Biochemistry: the chemical reactions of living cells, vol 2 by David E. Metzler and Carol Metzler. p 382

Carbon & Nitrogen
pg 128 Integral Urban House

Water Ideal ratio is 50%:
Direct interviews with Cedar Grove Employee at Seattle Green Conference June 5, 2010.

Oxygen & Insulation: 8-13% oxygen
Direct interviews with Cedar Grove Employee at Seattle Green Conference June 5, 2010.
A review of best practices for composting excrement and food wastes:
Co-composting of Faecal Sludge and Municipal Organic Waste: A literature and State of Knowledge Review. Swiss Federation of Environmental Science & Technology. 2003.

Awesome Critters That Compost

genus Thermus
First found in thermal vents in Japan
Oshima & Imahori (1974). "Description of Thermus thermophilus: a nonsporulating thermophilic bacterium from Japanese thermal spa." Int J Syst Bacteriol. 24: 102–112. doi:10.1099/00207713-24-1-102.

dormant and dead bugs
Non-heat loving organisms go dormant or die in thermophilic conditions

streptomyces- Hundreds of antibiotics, antibacterials and antifungals are derived from streptomycin, including the antibiotic Streptomycin.
Watve MG, Tickoo R, Jog MM, Bhole BD (November 2001). "How many antibiotics are produced by the genus Streptomyces?". Arch Microbiol. 176 (5): 386–90. doi:10.1007/s002030100345. PMID 11702082.

Geosmin-the smell of earth can be used to determine when compost is ready.
Sanabria-Leónpage, Rebeka . "Composting as an Alternative Method to Dispose of Slaughterhouse Wastses in Puerto Rico." Mayaguez: University of Puerto Rico Mayaguez Campus. 2006. pg 48.

A lab can detect geosmin at 2.5 pp trillion
http://www.benchmarkanalyticslabs.com/geosmin.htm

a description of the ridiculous lab testing required to determine geosmin:
"Molecular Characterization of Potential Geosmin-Producing Cyanobacteria from Lake Ontario." Waterloo: University of Waterloo. 2006. pg 25.

Nitrogen Cycle

Lightning fixes less than 10 teragrams annually
Soil Bacteria and lightning and algae fix approximately 140 teragrams of N annually.
Fertilizer releases 80 tg of fixed nitrogen
Total release of fixed N from human sources is 210 tg
Vitousek, Peter M. et al. (1997). “Human Alteration of the Global Nitrogen Cycle: Causes and Consequences,” Issues in Ecology, No. 1, pp. 4-6.

Rhizobia fixes nitrogen.
"These bacteria manufacture an enzyme [Nitrogenase] that enables them to convert
gaseous nitrogen directly into plant-usable forms"
Vitousek, Peter M. et al. (1997). “Human Alteration of the Global Nitrogen Cycle: Causes and Consequences,” Issues in Ecology, No. 1, pp. 4-6.

Lightning, with Rain's assistance Fixes nitrogen

N2 + O2 + heat 10,000K and pressure ----> 2NO
2NO+ O2 + more heat and pressure ---> 2NO2
2NO2 + H2O ----> HNO3 + HNO2 they release the H when they combine with more rain
HNO3---> H+ + NO3-
HNO2---> H+ + NO2-
"Nitrogen Fixation". Kapi'olani Community College Library. 8/18/20

Nitrogen Fixation by bacteria
2N2 + 3H2 ---> 2NH3
Azotobacter and cyanobacteria live freely and fix nitrogen.
Some bacteria live symbiotically with plants like Rhizobium. Plants that are friends with Rhizobium include peas, alfalfa, clover and other leguminous plants.
Ricklefs, Robert, and Gary Leon Miller. Ecology. 4th Edition. New York: Freeman, 2000. page 216.

ATP and nitrogenase are used by N fixing bacteria for fixing Nitrogen from the air into ammonia for plants. Nitrogenase is an enzyme consisting of two protein subunits, one containing one atom of iron the other molybdenum. The enzyme works most efficiently with low levels of oxygen. N fixing bacteria obtain the energy to reduce N2 into NH3 from oxidizing sugars and other organic compounds.
Metzler, David and Carol. Biochemistry: the Chemical Reactions of Living Cells. 2 vols. San Diego: Elsevier, 2003. p 1366

don't use this is not from our planet[Ranking of N fixers:
1. Terrestrial bacteria
2. Oceanic bacteria
tied for 3rd place: lightning bolts and Haber-Bosch

Ling Yung, Yuk. Photochemistry of Planetary atmospheres. Oxford University Press: New York. 1999. pg 349.]

Total input of Nitrogen from the air to the soil is 200 Mt-N per year. 100 MT-N is fixed biologically
65 Mt-N via rain and lightning
40 Mt-N Haber Bosch

Terrestrial biofixation: 140 million mg per year
oceanic biofixation 20-120
industrial fixation- 89
terrestrial combustion processes- 19
Prasad, Rajendra and J.F. Power. Soil Fertility Management for Sustainable Agriculture. Boca Raton: CRC Press, 2000. pg 131

Nitrogen REactions in the Soil
Mineralization is the transformation of organic nitrogen to inorganic forms.
the two steps are aminization (organic N becomes amino N) then ammonification (amino N becomes ammonium N).
source: Camberato, James J. "Nitrogen in Soil and FErtilizers." SC Turfgrass Foundation News, January-March 22011, vol 8 n 1. 6-10.
http://www.scstma.org/upkeep/resources/files/Nitrogen%20in%20Soil%20and%20Fertilizers.pdf

Aminization: From Meat to Eat: aminzation is when bacteria, fungi and actinomycetes break down complex organic molecules releasing amines and amino acids.
Fungi dominate under acidic conditions.
Bacteria and Actinomycetes dominate under neutral and alkaline conditions.

Prasad, Rajendra and J.F. Power. Soil Fertility Management for Sustainable Agriculture. Boca Raton: CRC Press, 2000. p 118

Ammonification
The conversion of complex organic nitrogen from amines and ammino acids in to ammonium and ammonia.
Sprent, Janet. The Ecology of the Nitrogen Cycle. University Press: Cambridge: page 4. 1987. page 7
C2H5NO2 + 1.5O2--->2CO2 + H2O + NH3 (many bacteria, most plants and animals do this pg 216, Ricklefs. Ecology.

Ammonia readily Volatizes when exposed to air.
NH3 + CO2 ---> NH2OH--->NO2
Jorgensen, Sven Erik. Ecosystem Ecology. Amsterdam: Elsevier. 2009. page171

Nitrification is the converstion of ammonium to nitrate. A two step reaction.
also page 171 Jorgensen
NH3 ammonium +1.5O2--->HNO2 nitrite +H2O by Nitrosomonas
KNO2 nitrite +1/2O2--->KNO3 nitrate by Nitrobacter
Ricklefs, Robert, and Gary Leon Miller. Ecology. 4th Edition. New York: Freeman, 2000. page 216.
and Camberato, James.

Plants uptake ammonium and nitrate.
Camberato, James.

De nitrification also page 171 Jorgensen
NO3- nitrate reduced to --> NO2 Pseudomonas
nitrite reduced again to NO ---> N2O reduced again (meaning oxygen is removed)--->N2
occurs under anaerobic conditions

Ammonia and Water make Ammonium! and Plants Dig it
NH3 + H2O ---> NH4+ + OH-
Sprent, Janet. The Ecology of the Nitrogen Cycle. Cambridge:University Press, 1987. page 4.

Leaching
"Leaching is the downward movement of nitrogen with water percolation through the soil profile. How much nitrogen is lost from the rootzone is dependent on the nitrogen form present, soil type, the amount of rainfall in relation to evapotranspiration, and the depth of the rootzone."
Caberato, James. 6

Eutrophication: when there's a surge in nutrients entering a body of water phytoplankton and algae grow at a faster rate which can consume all the oxygen in the water body, which kills aerobic creatures.
Ricklefs page 17.

Feces & urine: pg 118. Farallones Institute. The Integral Urban House: Self-Reliant Living in the City. Gabriola Island: New Catalyst Books, 1979, 1991, 2008. pg 118.

The atmosphere is 78% N2 and 21% O2 and less than 1% argon
p 214 Ricklefs Ecology.

Clay binds ammonium
Clay particles in the soil are negatively charged which makes them attract and bind ammonium molecules. pg 231 Ricklefs Ecology.

Groundwater: When nitrates leach into the groundwater it makes groundwater smell bad. When nitrates build up in the blood it reduces blood's capacity to bind with oxygen which can be a problem for infant animals and humans. The primary cause is excessive fertilization for agricultural purposes.
Bell, Fred. Environmental Geology: Principles and Practice. Malden: Blackwell, 1998. pg 277.

Oh, The Places You'll Go

Latrines:
Elizabeth Tilley et al. "Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies." Eawag Sandec, 2008. .

"Parasites." Radiolab. WNYC, New York. Season 6, Episode 3 for the fact on latrine depth.

Moule's earth closet:
the best contemporary account:
Waring Jr., George E. "Village Sanitary Work," Scribner's Monthly, Vol. XIV, No. 2, 176-187. See page 185-186.

Composting Toilets:
Pictured toilets are well described in the Composting Toilet Systems Book if you want any sort of composting toilet, buy this book.
Del Porto, David and Carol Steinfeld, "The Composting Toilet System Book" Center for Ecological Pollution Prevention: Concord, 2000.

Clivus Multrum page 76

Dual Vault Composting Toilet, Vietnam page 100
Not the same model, but similar to a Biolet, or "cottage model" toilet.

Wheelie Batch Composter page 94

Micro flush systems page 115

Desiccating Toilets: Many are custom-built, but a commercial one is the Eloo by SWSLOO SWSLoo.com
Also see: Thomas Redlinger, "Ecological Toilets in Hot Arid Climates." EcoSanRes, 2002.

Flush Toilets:
Elizabeth Tilley et al. "Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies." Eawag Sandec, 2008. .

Dual Flush:
invented by Caroma Australia
www.caroma.com

Hochspuler vs Tiefspüler:
also called flachspüler, flat flush
http://parentingfortherestofus.com/2010/08/the-poop-shelf/

Incinerating Toilets:
contemporary models:
storburn.ca
incinolet.com
kerosene: stories from WWII about burning in Kerosene cans. No good citation

Packaging toilet
Pactotoilet.com
dymaxion bathroom:
http://www.bfi.org/about-bucky/buckys-big-ideas/dymaxion-world/dymaxion-bathroom

Chemical toilet:
often aldyhydes, formaldehyde is not very popular anymore but still legal in some places. Based on phone research calling portapotty companies. Most of the "blue stuff" is proprietary and they won't release it's constituents.

ADDITIVES:
Carbon Matter:
also see composting toilet systems book, and Joe Jenkins, Humanure Handbook (excellent but self-published).

Water: great coverage of water issues in Sim Van Der Ryn's The Toilet Papers.

Basic Chemicals:
Poore, G.V. "Dry Methods of Sanitation" LSE Selected Pamphlets (1894).
Also:
Powell, W. A. Manchester . "The Pail Closet System: Progress at Manchester." Selected Pamphlets, University of Manchester, 1877.

Acids, Etc:
aldyhydes- based on conversations with portable toilet operators
an exhaustive 19th century list:
"Methods of Disinfection Recommended by the Department of Health of the City of New York" The American Journal of Nursing, Vol. 1, No. 8 (May 1901), pp. 546-554.
Also:
Poore, G.V. "Dry Methods of Sanitation" LSE Selected Pamphlets (1894).

Squat Toilets:
squatting and health:
Rane, Ajay, "Does micturition improve in the squatting position?" Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, April 2008, Vol. 28 Issue 3, p317-319.
simple answer about peeing (micturition): probably no health benefits if you're from a Western country and can't really squat

Narmada, Gupta. "Does position affect uroflowmetry Parameters in women?" Urologia Internationalis, January 2008, Vol. 80 Issue 1, p37-40
Yes, squatting makes you pee faster and more completely, if you are from a country where you've been trained to squat.

"Anglo-Indian"
http://www.commanderwatertech.com/angloindian.html

Piss Pots:
Horan, Julie. The Porcelain God: A social history of the toilet. Secaucus: Carol Publishing. 1996.

FUD, Female Urinals:
the best article on the topic is in:
Greed, Clara. "Inclusive Urban Design: Public Toilets" Oxford: Linacre House. 2003.

Waterless urinal inserts:
pictured is the
Waterless Ecotrap
http://www.waterless.com/

ZeroFlush waterless urinal
http://www.zeroflush.com/

Urine Collection Device
Stadium Pal and Stadium Gal are the current big commercial products:
http://www.stadiumpal.com/what-makes-it-work.htm

Check out all the contraptions on http://www.biorelief.com

Female Hand Technique:
There are all sorts of unsupported claims all over the internet about women in the Philippines and West Africa, but we personally know one woman who can walk into the mens room and pee through her fly. She practiced in the shower.